Mt. Erebus Antarctic expedition 2007 - Image 36 of 58

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Ice world. If hot volcanic water vapour escapes at places that are covered by a glacier or a thick layer of ice, gigantic cavities are melted into that ice. Usually an ice tower forms above that cavity, which is sometimes also called a “fumarole”. This way the chimney-like ice towers are entries into a bizarre underworld of dark and blue. Some of the ice cave systems are several kilometres long and were never entered by humans before.